MILKING BREEDS


The cows of these breeds are high milk yields and the male animals are slow or poor work animals. The examples of Indian milch breeds are sahiwal, Red Sindhi, and Gir. The milk production of milk breeds are on the average more than 1600kg per lactation.

Red Sindhi Cow is a special breed
Red Sindhi is a distinguished milch breed of Upmahadweep. It is mostly found in Karachi and Hyderabad districts of Pakistn. Some organized herds of this breed are also found in India in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Orissa. The original herd was established at Malir outside Karachi.

Lal Sindhi cattle are somewhat similar to Sahiwal and may also be related to Afghan and Gir cattle. Red Sindhi is one of the important dairy cattle breeds in Indian sub-continent.


Physical Characteristics

• This breed has distinctly red color.

• Red shades vary from dark red to dim yellow. Though patches of white are seen on dewlap and sometimes on forehead, no large white patches are present on the body.

• In bulls, color is dark on the shoulders and thighs.

• Hair is soft and short, and skin is loose.

• Milk production is around 1,840 kg (range 1,100 to 2,600 kg) and lactation length 296 days. Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi averages over 1700 kg of milk after suckling their calves but under optimum conditions there have been milk yields of over 3400 kg per lactation.

• Fat is around 4.5%

SahiwalCow :
The Sahiwal is one of the best dairy breeds of zebu cattle.

Though its original breeding tract lies in Montogomery (now Sahiwal) district of Pakistan, yet some herds are also found in India along the Indo-Pak border in Ferozepur and Amritsar districts of Punjab, and Sri Ganganagar district of Rajasthan, Haryana, U.P, Delhi, Bihar and M.P.

Sahiwal breed is being utilized widely for improvement of local stock or for the purpose of initial crossbreeding. It is known to have been introduced into 17 other countries , besides Pakistan and India. These are: Mauritius, Kenya, Tanzania, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Brazil, Jamaica, Trinidad, Australia and New Zealand.


Physical Characteristics:


• Coat color is usually red, sometimes pale red or brown occasionally mixed with white spots is also seen.

• The Sahiwal is a heavy breed with symmetrical body and loose skin

• Animals are long, deep, fleshy and comparatively lethargic.

• Horns are short and stumpy.

• Average milk yield is 2,326 kg (range 1,600 to 2,750 kg).

• Average lactation length is 318 days (range 285 to 375 days).

• Fat is 4.8% to 5.1% (average 4.93%).

• Milk yield – Under village condition: 1350 kg

• Milk yield – Under commercial farms: 2100 kg

• Calving interval – 15 month

Gir Cow
The Gir is a famous milk cattle breed of India. The native tract of the breed is Gir hills and forests of Kathiawar including Junagarh, Bhavnagar, Rajkot and Amreli districts of Gujarat. The Gir animals are famous for their tolerance to stress conditions and resistance to various tropical diseases. Bullocks of this breed are used to drag heavy loads on all kinds of soil, Brazil, Mexico, USA and Venezuela have imported these animals where they are being breed successfully. These animals contribute significantly to the total milk production of Gujarat State. The Rabaris, Bharwads, Maldharis, Ahirs and Charans tribes are mainly involved in rearing in search for grazing. The Gir animals are also kept at different Gaushalas (cow barns) in Gujarat State.


Physical Characteristics:
• Coat color of Gir animals varies from shades of red and white to almost black and white or entire red. Skin color is dominantly black but in a few animals it is brown, has red/white and black/white or completely red haired cows can be seen.

• Forehead is prominent, convex and broad like a bony shield. This overhangs eyes in such a way that they appear to be partially closed and the animal shows sloppy appearance.

• Ears are long and pendulous and folded like a leaf.

• The tail is long and whip like.

• Hooves are black and medium sized.

• Skin is loose and pliable.

• Hipbones are prominent, the body is well proportioned, the udder in cows is well developed

• Age at first calving in Gir cows is 52.49 months.

• Average lactation and 300 days mlk yield in 378 Gir cows is 1775 and 1449 kg respectively.

• Gir cow milk yield – under village condition: 900 kg

• Gir cow milk yield – under commercial farms: 1600 kg.

Goat Forming

Goat farming is not a new enterprise.. Goat rearing has been done since the time immemorial. Generally goat farming means rearing goats for the purpose of harvesting milk, meat and fiber.

 

It’s a highly profitable business:
Goats efficiently convert sub-quality grazing matter that is less desirable for other livestock into quality lean meat
Goats can be farmed with a relatively small area of pasture and limited resources


Land requirements
Goats can be reared intensively on small acreage by using supplemental feed. If using an extensive system, 2 to 10 goats per acre is a rough guide depending on the supply of grass and brush. Goats are top down grazers and will select from weeds, leaves and grasses to meet their own requirements. They can also help to improve marginal areas encouraging re-establishment of grassy species so providing low cost environmental management as well as meat.

 

 


Goat Nutrition and Diet
For optimum breeding and kidding, goats need the correct balance of protein, vitamins and minerals. You can purchase commercial supplements & goat mineral. Good quality hay which provides protein and roughage should be given when and where necessary e.g. during winter in some areas. Access to clean water both in the field and in the pens is essential.

Fencing
Save yourself some goat chasing and invest in proper fencing at the start; goats like to escape. Here are some possible goat fencing choices:
woven wire fence

i.e

  • cyclone fence 6x6 woven wire
  • re-enforced chicken wire
  • 5 strand barbed wire
  • 3 strand high tensile electric wire
  • Southern States fencing & fencing equipment.

    The latter is the cheapest in terms of capital outlay but this has to be balanced against the ongoing maintenance required which can be costly in terms of labor over a large area.
    Housing and Shelter

    Goats need field shelters to protect them from extremes of weather. Penning the goats at night can reduce predator attacks and enable you to observe and handle your animals at close quarters.

    Goat Predators

Botton Mushroom

Button mushrooms are the most consumed mushrooms in the United States, accounting for 90 percent of mushroom intake according to the United States Department of Agriculture. Also referred to as white button mushrooms or commercial mushrooms, they are available year-round and are used in soups, salads, casseroles or eaten raw. A look into the health benefits of this widely consumed fungus may prompt you to add more to your diet.
True button mushrooms are picked when they are very young and when the caps of the mushroom are still closed. They should be free of any marks or discolorations, and the stems on their bottoms should not have hardened. Generally, when a cook buys fresher mushrooms, they are easy to slice and the whole mushroom, stem included, can be used. Those that have sat for a few days in the grocery store, or that are larger, may feature a hardened bottom stem that needs to be removed prior to slicing or preparing it.
The name "button" tends to refer to a specific size, but they are not the only mushrooms that are A. bisporusPortobello mushrooms are large, brown versions, for example, as are smaller Italian brown mushrooms. Consumers might also find wild mushrooms in button size, simply meaning that they’re smaller and picked at an earlier stage.

Button varieties are also available in the canned food section. Some are canned in water, while other sare pickled or packed in oil and vinegar. They make great toppings for individual pizzas because of their convenient size, and they can be a good addition to stir-fried dishes and salads. With all mushroom sizes or ages, cooks should be careful not to overcook them, or they can get rubbery and slimy. Cooks who are adding mushrooms to a stew, for instance, should wait until the last five to ten minutes to add them.
Mushroom enthusiasts can find button mushrooms in the wild, but they can easily be confused with A. Californicus, a look-alike that is mildly toxic. Because of the similarities, gathering wild mushrooms should only be done with an expert.

Button mushrooms are the young, emergent stage of a number of mushroom varieties, but the term is most often applied to the white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), which is the most common variety of supermarket culinary mushroom. Small quantities of button mushrooms can be grown from ready-made kits, but these are expensive for the quantity of mushrooms they produce. You can grow your own button mushrooms from mushroom spawn and compost for a fraction of the price of store-bought mushrooms.

HOW TO GROW BUTTON MUSHROOMS

Mix equal parts of straw and horse manure together using a pitchfork. Add about 1 pound of gypsum for every 5 gallons (the volume to fill a standard utility bucket) of straw-manure mixture and mix it in thoroughly with the pitchfork. Wet the pile with water until it is completely moist but not saturated.
Turn the pile once a week with the pitchfork, adding water as necessary to keep the compost pile moist. When the the pile has fully decomposed, cover it with a tarp until you are ready to plant your mushroom.
Obtain dry flake mushroom spawn for white button mushrooms from a reputable mushroom supply vendor. When the mushroom spawn arrives, fill the wooden citrus or vegetable crates, or scrap-lumber trays, heaped slightly over the top of the crates or trays, with compost.
Add one large handful of mushroom flake spawn for every square foot of surface area to each crate or tray. Mix the spawn into the compost thoroughly by hand. Mist the trays with a plant mister or a fine-spray attachment to a hose. Place the crates or trays in a warm, dark location.
Mist or spray the compost frequently enough to keep it moist, but not saturated. When fine white webs of mycelium appear on the surface of the compost, soak peat moss in a bucket. Spread one to two inches of soaked peat moss over the surface of each crate or tray.
Watch the crates or trays for white pin-head sized mushrooms to emerge. Harvest the mushrooms when they reach the button stage; that is, are full round mushroom heads about 1 inch to 2 inches in diameter.
Mist or spray the trays daily to keep the growing medium moist; additional crops, or flushes, of mushrooms will emerge every 10 days to 2 weeks until the nutrients in the compost have been exhausted.

Cleaning
Little water is required for the cleaning of store-bought mushrooms or of field specimens if gathered carefully. Older ones may be fragile and difficult to clean without cracking. A soft brush is useful. Avoid soaking, for the gills retain water and they will cook poorly. For best results, let them drain in a colander 15 to 30 minutes before cooking. Prepare all species of Agaricus in the same manner.

 

BENEFITS

Heart Health Benefits

Heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world, but consuming button mushrooms can keep you from becoming another statistic. A major risk factor for heart disease is atherogenesis, which is the formation of plaque on arterial walls, which causes atherosclerosis and hardening of the arteries. Researchers at Arizona State University tested the effects of button mushrooms on the human endothelial cells in a test tube. The results of their study, published in the July 2010 issue of "Nutrition Journal," show that button mushrooms reduce inflammation in arterial cells and prevent white blood cells from sticking to arterial walls. The researchers conclude that consuming button mushrooms may be a means to prevent heart disease.

Immune System Benefits

Specific cells in the body, referred to as natural killer cells, respond rapidly to foreign invaders such as viruses or cancer cells. Their rapid response is crucial to the immune system, as it helps the body fight disease. The June 2007 issue of the "Journal of Nutrition" reports that eating button mushrooms can boost the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells. Although they do not fully understand how, scientists believe that it is the polysaccharide content of the mushrooms that is responsible for their immune-boosting ability.

Anticancer Benefits

Button mushrooms protect the body from various cancer cell lines. In June 2010, the department of plant pathology at Penn State released a report stating that button mushrooms have been found effective at treating breast, colon and prostate cancers. According to a study in the December 2006 issue of "Cancer Research," eating one 1/2 cup of button mushrooms a day can stop the growth of breast cancer tumors. A healthy woman may eat less than 1/2 cup to greatly reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.

Nutritional Benefits

Button mushrooms contribute to the recommended daily intake of several vitamins and minerals. The USDA reports that mushrooms contain high amounts of copper, which is needed to produce blood cells and maintain heart health. Additional nutrients are vitamins C, D and B; and the minerals selenium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and zinc. When cooked, most of the nutrient content of mushrooms remains the same, while some nutrients lose between 5 and 20 percent of their value.

 




ColdStroageUnits

Cold storage units are used for climate-control and is used to store frozen products. It is primarily used to keep food (dairy, produce, meat) from spoilage, prior to transportation or sale.

cold storage room is a great place to store fruits and vegetables, as well as other products, as they prolong the life and help prevent spoilage of foods. This makes cold storage rooms and cooler rooms refrigeration a great choice for storing perishable items.

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For example, say you need to store fresh fruit and vegetables. Keeping them at the right temperature will reduce the risk of damage and extend their shelf life. These same foods stored in a warm environment will mold faster and attract pests.

Perishable foods stored at the wrong temperature will spoil, leading to changes in color, texture, and flavor. Eating food that hasn’t been kept at the right temperature will also increase your chances of getting food poisoning.

Obviously, that isn’t something you want to risk with your products.

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